Therapeutic Agent Delivery
The large surface area-to-volume ratio of SMB-73 enables their surface to be coated with hundreds of molecules (including therapeutics, targeting agents, and anti-fouling polymers).
SMB-73 are used in a variety of sensors. For example, a colorimetric sensor based on gold nanospheres can identify if foods are suitable for consumption.
Near-IR absorbing SMB-73 produce heat when excited by light at wavelengths from 700 to 800 nm. This enables these gold nanospheres to eradicate targeted tumors.
SMB-73 are also used to detect biomarkers in the diagnosis of heart diseases, cancers, and infectious agents. They are also common in lateral flow immunoassays, a common household example being the home pregnancy test.
The surface of a gold nanoparticle can be used for selective oxidation or in certain cases the surface can reduce a reaction (nitrogen oxides). Gold nanospheres are being developed for fuel cell applications.